Daily historical facts, events, famous birthdays, world history. Discover what happened today in history.
462-Possible start of first Byzantine indiction|indiction cycle -
717- Siege of Constantinople (717–18)|Siege of Constantinople -The Muslim Navy fleet|armada with 1,800 ships, is defeated by the Byzantine navy through the use of Greek fire.
1270-King Stephen V of Hungary -writes his walk to the ''antiquum castellum'' near Miholjanec, where the Sword of Attila was recently discovered.
1355-King Tvrtko I of Bosnia -writes ''In castro nostro Vizoka vocatum'' from the Old town of Visoki.
1529-The Spanish fort of Sancti Spiritu (Argentina)|Sancti Spiritu -the first one built in modern Argentina, is destroyed by natives.
1532-Lady Anne Boleyn -is made Marquess of Pembroke by her Engagement|fiancé, King Henry VIII of England|Henry VIII of England.
1604- Adi Granth -now known as Guru Granth Sahib, the holy scripture of Sikhs, was first installed at Harmandir Sahib.
1644- Battle of Tippermuir -James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose defeats the Earl of Wemyss's Covenanters, reviving the Cavalier|Royalist cause.
1715-King Louis XIV of France -dies after a reign of 72 years—the longest of any major European monarch.
1763- Catherine II of Russia -endorses Ivan Betskoy's plans for a Foundling Home in Moscow
1772-The Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa -is founded in San Luis Obispo, California.
1774- Province of Massachusetts Bay|Massachusetts Bay -colonists rise up in the bloodless Powder Alarm.
1804- 3 Juno|Juno -one of the four largest asteroids in the Main Belt, is discovered by the German astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding.
1831-The high honor of '' Order of St. Gregory the Great -' is established by Pope Gregory XVI of the Vatican State to recognize high support for the Vatican or for the Pope, by a man or a woman, and not necessarily a Roman Catholic.
1836- Narcissa Whitman -one of the first English-speaking white women to settle west of the Rocky Mountains, arrives at Walla Walla, Washington.
1862- American Civil War -Battle of Chantilly
1864-American Civil War: the Confederate Army -General John Bell Hood orders the evacuation of Atlanta, ending a four-month siege by General William Tecumseh Sherman.
1870- Franco-Prussian War -the Battle of Sedan is fought, resulting in a decisive Kingdom of Prussia|Prussian victory.
1873- Cetshwayo -ascends to the throne as king of the Zulu Kingdom|Zulu nation following the death of his father Mpande.
1878- Emma Nutt -becomes the world's first female telephone operator when she is recruited by Alexander Graham Bell to the Boston Telephone Dispatch Company.
1880-The army of Mohammad Ayub Khan -is routed by the British at the Battle of Kandahar, ending the Second Anglo-Afghan War
1894-Over 400 people die in the Great Hinckley Fire -a forest fire in Hinckley, Minnesota.
1897-The Tremont Street Subway -in Boston opens, becoming the first underground rapid transit system in North America.
1902-'' A Trip to the Moon -', considered one of the first science fiction films, is released in France.
1905- Alberta -and Saskatchewan join the Canadian confederation.
1906-The International Federation of Intellectual Property Attorneys -is established.
1911-The armored cruiser -Greek cruiser Georgios Averof|''Georgios Averof'' is commissioned into the Hellenic Navy|Greek Navy. It now serves as a museum ship.
1914- St. Petersburg -Russian Empire|Russia, changes its name to Petrograd.
1914-The last passenger pigeon -a female named Martha (pigeon)|Martha, dies in captivity in the Cincinnati Zoo.
1920-The '' Fountain of Time -' opens as a tribute to the 100 years of peace between the United States and Great Britain following the Treaty of Ghent.
1923-The 1923 Great Kantō earthquake|Great Kantō earthquake -devastates Tokyo and Yokohama, killing about 105,000 people.
1928- Ahmet Zogu -declares Albania to be a monarchy and proclaims himself king.
1934- SMJK Sam Tet -is founded by Father Fourgs from the St. Michael Church, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.
1939- World War II -Nazi Germany and Slovak Republic (1939–45)|Slovakia Invasion of Poland|invade Second Polish Republic|Poland, beginning the European phase of World War II.
1939-General George C. Marshall -becomes Joint Chiefs of Staff|Chief of Staff of the United States Army.
1939-The Wound Badge -for Wehrmacht, SS, Kriegsmarine, and Luftwaffe soldiers is instituted. The final version of the Iron Cross is also instituted on this date.
1939-Switzerland mobilizes its forces and the Swiss Parliament -elects Henri Guisan to head the Swiss Army (an event that can happen only during war or mobilization).
1939- Adolf Hitler -signs an order to begin the Action T4|systematic euthanasia of mentally ill and disabled people.
1951-The United States, Australia and New Zealand sign a mutual defense pact, called the ANZUS Treaty -
1952-'' The Old Man and the Sea -', the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction|Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Ernest Hemingway, is first published.
1958- Iceland -expands its fishing zone, putting it into conflict with the United Kingdom, beginning the Cod Wars.
1961-The Eritrean War of Independence -officially begins with the shooting of the Ethiopian police by Hamid Idris Awate.
1967-The Khmer–Chinese Friendship Association -is banned in Cambodia