Daily historical facts, events, famous birthdays, world history. Discover what happened today in history.
153 BC- Roman consul -begin their year in office.
45 BC-The Julian calendar -takes effect as the civil calendar of the Roman Empire, establishing January 1 as the new date of the new year.
42 BC-The Roman Senate -posthumously Apotheosis|deifies Julius Caesar
69-The Roman legion -in Germania Superior refuse to swear loyalty to Galba. They rebel and proclaim Vitellius as emperor.
193-The Senate chooses Pertinax -against his will to succeed Commodus as Roman emperor.
404-An infuriated Roman crowd|mob -tears Saint Telemachus|Telemachus, a Christian monk, to pieces for trying to stop a gladiators' fight in the public arena held in Rome.
414- Galla Placidia -half-sister of Emperor Honorius (emperor)|Honorius, is married to the Visigoths|Visigothic king Ataulf at Narbonne. The wedding is celebrated with Roman festivities and magnificent gifts from the Goths|Gothic booty.
417-Emperor Honorius forces Galla Placidia into marriage to Constantius III|Constantius -his famous general (''magister militum'').
1001-Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary -is named the first King of Hungary by Pope Sylvester II.
1068- Romanos IV Diogenes -marries Eudokia Makrembolitissa and is crowned List of Byzantine emperors|Byzantine Emperor.
1259- Michael VIII Palaiologos -is proclaimed co-emperor of the Empire of Nicaea with his ward John IV Laskaris.
1438- Albert II of Germany|Albert II of Habsburg -is crowned King of Hungary.
1502-The present-day location of Rio de Janeiro -Brazil is first explored by the Portugal|Portuguese.
1515-King Francis I of France -succeeds to the France|French throne.
1527-Croatian nobles elect Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor|Ferdinand I -of Austria as List of rulers of Croatia#King of Croatia|King of Croatia in the Parliament on Cetin.
1600- Scotland -begins its numbered year on January 1 instead of March 25.
1651- Charles II of England|Charles II -is crowned List of Scottish monarchs|King of Scotland.
1700- Russia -begins using the Anno Domini era and no longer uses the Anno Mundi era of the Byzantine Empire.
1707- John V of Portugal|John V -is crowned King of Portugal.
1739- Bouvet Island -is discovered by French explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier.
1772-The first traveler's cheque -, which can be used in 90 European cities, go on sale in London|London, England, Great Britain.
1773-The hymn that became known as " Amazing Grace -, then titled "1 Chronicles 17:16–17" is first used to accompany a sermon led by John Newton in the town of Olney, Buckinghamshire|Olney, England, Great Britain.
1776- American Revolutionary War -Norfolk, Virginia is Burning of Norfolk|burned by combined Royal Navy and Continental Army action.
1781-American Revolutionary War: 1,500 soldiers of the 6th Pennsylvania Regiment -under General Anthony Wayne's command rebel against the Continental Army's winter camp in Morristown, New Jersey in the Pennsylvania Line Mutiny of 1781.
1788-First edition of '' The Times -' of London, previously ''The Daily Universal Register'', is published.
1800-The Dutch East India Company -is dissolved.
1801-The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain -and Kingdom of Ireland is completed to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1801-The dwarf planet Ceres (dwarf planet)|Ceres -is discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi.
1803-Emperor Gia Long -orders all bronze wares of the Tây Sơn Dynasty to be collected and melted into nine cannons for the Royal Citadel in Huế, Vietnam.
1804-French rule ends in Haiti -Haiti becomes the first black republic and second independent country in North America after the United States
1806-The French Republican Calendar -is abolished.
1808-The importation of slavery|slaves -into the United States is banned.
1810-Major-General Lachlan Macquarie -Order of the Bath|CB officially becomes Governor of New South Wales
1812-The Bishop of Durham -Shute Barrington, orders troops from Durham Castle to break up a miners strike in Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham
1822-The Greek Constitution of 1822 -is adopted by the First National Assembly at Epidaurus.
1833-The United Kingdom -claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.
1845-The Cobble Hill Tunnel -in Brooklyn, New York City|New York, New York is completed.
1847-The world's first UPMC Mercy|"Mercy" Hospital -is founded in Pittsburgh|Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania by the Sisters of Mercy, the name will go on to grace over 30 major hospitals throughout the world.
1860- Postage stamps and postal history of Poland#First Polish stamp|First Polish stamp -is issued.
1861- Porfirio Díaz -conquers Mexico City, Mexico.
1863- American Civil War -The Emancipation Proclamation takes effect in Confederate States of America|Confederate territory.
1863-The first claim under the Homestead Act -is made by Daniel Freeman (homesteader)|Daniel Freeman for a farm in Nebraska.
1870- Adolf Loos -architect, co-founder of modern architecture, baptized in Church of St. Thomas (Brno)|St. Thomas church, Brno, Moravia
1873- Japan -begins using the Gregorian calendar.
1877- Queen Victoria -of the United Kingdom is proclaimed Emperor of India|Empress of India.
1880- Ferdinand de Lesseps -begins French construction of the Panama Canal.
1885-Twenty-five nations adopt Sandford Fleming -s proposal for standard time (and also, time zones)
1890- Eritrea -is consolidated into a colony by the Italy|Italian government.
1890-The Rose Parade -in Pasadena, California, is first held.
1892- Ellis Island -opens to begin processing immigrants into the United States.
1894-The Manchester Ship Canal -is officially opened to traffic.
1898-New York, New York annexes land from surrounding counties, creating the City of Greater New York -The four initial boroughs, Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and The Bronx, are joined on January 25 by Staten Island to create the modern city of five boroughs.
1899- Spain|Spanish -rule ends in Cuba.
1901- Nigeria -becomes a British protectorate.
1901-The British colonies of New South Wales -Queensland, Victoria (Australia)|Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia Federation of Australia|federate as the Australia|Commonwealth of Australia; Edmund Barton is appointed the first Prime Minister of Australia|Prime Minister.
1902-The first American college football -bowl game, the Rose Bowl Game|Rose Bowl between Michigan and Stanford, is held in Pasadena, California.
1906- Presidencies and provinces of British India|British India -officially adopts the Indian Standard Time.
1908-For the first time, a Times Square Ball|ball -is dropped in New York, New York's Times Square to signify the start of the New Year at midnight.
1909-Drilling begins on the Lakeview Gusher -
1910-Captain David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty|David Beatty -is promoted to Rear admiral, and becomes the youngest admiral in the Royal Navy (except for British Royal Family|Royal family members), since Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson|Horatio Nelson.
1911- Northern Territory -is separated from South Australia and transferred to Commonwealth control.
1912-The Republic of China (1912–1949)|Republic of China -is established.
1913-The British Board of Film Classification|British Board of Censors -is established.
1916- Germany|German -troops abandon Yaoundé and their Cameroon|Kamerun colony to British forces and begin the long march to Spanish Guinea.
1920-The Belorussian Communist Organisation -is founded as a separate party.
1923-Britain's Railways are grouped into the List of railway companies involved in the 1923 grouping#The Big Four|Big Four -London and North Eastern Railway|LNER, Great Western Railway|GWR, Southern Railway (UK)|SR, and London, Midland and Scottish Railway|LMS.
1927-The Cristero War -begins in Mexico.
1927- Turkey -adopts the Gregorian calendar: December 18, 1926 (Julian), is immediately followed by January 1, 1927 (Gregorian).
1928- Boris Bazhanov -defects through Iran. He is the only assistant of Joseph Stalin's secretariat to have Eastern Bloc emigration and defection|defected from the Eastern Bloc.
1929-The former municipalities of Point Grey, British Columbia and South Vancouver, British Columbia are Merger (politics)|amalgamated -into Vancouver.
1932-The United States Post Office Department issues 1932 Washington Bicentennial|a set of 12 stamps -commemorating the 200th anniversary of George Washington's birth.
1934- Alcatraz Island -becomes a United States federal prison.
1934- Nazi Germany -passes the "Nazi eugenics|Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring".
1937-Safety glass in vehicle windshield|windscreens -becomes mandatory in the United Kingdom.
1939- Sydney|Sydney, Australia -swelters in 45 ˚C (113 ˚F) heat, a record for the city.
1942-The Declaration by United Nations -is signed by twenty-six nations.
1945- World War II -In retaliation for the Malmedy massacre, U.S. troops massacre 30 SS prisoners at Chenogne massacre|Chenogne.
1945-World War II: The German '' Luftwaffe -' launches ''Operation Bodenplatte'', a massive, but failed attempt to knock out Allies of World War II|Allied air power in northern Europe in a single blow.
1947-The American and British occupation zones in Germany -after World War II, merge to form the Bizone, that later became West Germany.
1947-The Canadian Citizenship Act 1946 -comes into effect, converting British subjects into Canadian citizens. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King becomes the first Canadian citizen.
1948-The British railway network is Nationalization|nationalized -to form British Railways.
1948-The Constitution of Italy -comes into force.
1949- United Nations -cease-fire takes effect in Kashmir from one minute before midnight. War between India and Pakistan stops accordingly.
1950-Standard practice uses this day as the origin of the age scale <